Some interesting pieces of fine quality vintage Russian filigree work will be found here. Filigree was perfected back in the days of Catherine the Great, primarily in the Krasnoselsky and Kostroma districts of Russia, where it originated in the late 16th and early 17th century. Filigree and graining are time-tested methods of decorating metals artistically. Some fine filigree of more recent vintage was made in the Ivanova district, which includes Mstera and Kazakavo, near Nihzny Novgorod (formerly the city of Gorky). Filigree is quite labor intensive and delicate. Examples of filigree design and craftsmanship are reminiscent of "bobbin-lace" (a textile made by braiding and twisting lengths of thread, which are wound on bobbins). The copper pieces are shaped and twisted and then can be dipped in practically pure (99.9%) silver. Occasionally a piece is plated in high purity gold. Other decorative enhancements include fine seed pearl and grains and rosettes.